Lexicology — Билет 7

Borrowed Words. 

A loan (borrowed) words or borrowing is a word that have been borrowed into

the English language and either have

been assimilated completely into the

English language or partially or have

not been assimilated at all and baring the

name of barbarisms.

According to the source of borrowing

  1. Germanic element is older and comprises
  2. Anglo-Saxon or native words- the largest part of the layer
  3. Scandinavian origin – they are the less part
  4. other Germanic language mainly Dutch (deck, yacht)
  5. Germanic (nickel, waltz, swindler)


  1. The Romance element :
  2. Latin
  3. early borrowings (school, kitchen, cook, wine, butter, cheese)

(was spoken that’s why such words)

  1. During the Renaissance (concentration, moderation, unite)

(language of books; scholars and churchmen)

  1. French (XI 1066)
  2. names of dishes (pork, beef, mutton)
  3. cloth

iii.      culture

  1. political culture (parliament)


In English it is possible to meet hybrids (words comprising elements of different languages)


Goddess (Germanic stem, Romance suffix)

Relationship (Romance stem and native suffix)


There are other borrowings in the English language:

  1. Russian:
  2. old borrowing, such as silk
  3. late Middle Ages – the beginning of Modern Times – a reflection of the trade relations between Russia and England (samovar, czar, sterile)
  4. words of the newest period, which reflect the social ideas, scientific achievements and culture (glasnost, perestroika)
  5. Many scientific terms came from Greek: philanthropie, technology
  6. Some words came from the languages of the American Indians: tobacco, potato

Etymological Doublets.


are two or more words of the Same language which originated from one word but now they have different phonetic shapes, graphic representation, and they’ve god an extending meaning still we feel something common in them






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