— (30% of English words) — is a very productive word building means in modern
English. The aim of this process is to combine two
stems to produce one word.
e.x. bedroom; blackboard
Principles (problems) of composition
- How to differentiate compound words from word combinations.
5 criteria of this distinguish
1) Phonetic – all word-combination bare a primary stress on each of its constitutive parts where is compound word have only one primary stress.
Ex. Laughing boys laughing gas (compound word)
But in speech stress may disappear.
2) Morphological – in compound words the ending is placed at the end of this structure.
Ex. Weekend (s)
3) Syntactical – strict word order;
Ex. Adj + noun = beautiful house
But noun + adj. compound word
Grass- green bottle
4) Syntactic – in some compound words the meaning of a whole can’t be deduced (исчислять) from the total sum of the meanings of its constitutive parts.
Ex. Ladybird – божья коровка
Type – writer – печатная машинка
But – many compound words don’t bare idiomatic character.
Ex. Bedroom, classroom, workday
n In one block
6% separate writing
12% in one block
The difference between compounds words and word combination is still blurred. (Стерта)
Classification of compound words.
- The syntactic principle of classification
- Compound words consisting of two simple stems
Ex. Blackboard, toothache, ladybird, bedroom
- Compound words of one simple and one derived stem
Ex. Blue-eyed; living-room; maid-servant
- Compound words of abbreviation
Ex. V-day; H-bomb
- Compound words of compound stem
Ex. Postmaster (general)
It is based upon the notion what part of speech form a compound word.
N+n= sea shore
N+adj.= milk white
- Semantic principle of classification
More important. They help to establish the hidden connection between the parts of a compound word.
These connections are called predicates.
The predicate cause: hay-fever
Have: sand beach
Use: foot steps
Be: old tree
In: garden party
For: bird cage
From: country boy
About: tax law
Reseble: gold fish